Baer Lab at Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Peer Reviewed Publications


69.  Smith, A. B., J. Alsdurf, M. Knapp, S. G. Baer, and L. C. Johnson. In press. Phenotypic distribution models corroborate species distribution models: A shift in the role and prevalence of a dominant prairie grass in response to climate change. Submitted to Global Change Biology


68.  Klopf, R. P., S. G. Baer, E. M. Bach, and J. Six. In press. Restoration and management for high plant diversity enhances belowground ecosystem recovery from disturbance. Ecological Applications Communications


67.  Walia, M. K., S. G. Baer, and R. L. Cook. In press. Deep soil carbon after 44 years of tillage and fertilizer management in southern Illinois compared to forest and restored prairie soils. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation


66.  Scott, D. A., S. G. Baer, and J. M. Blair. 2017. Recovery and relative influence of root, microbial, and structural properties of soil on physically sequestered carbon stocks in restored grassland. Soil Science Society of America Journal Online: doi:10.2136/sssaj2016.05.0158


65.  Gibson, D. J, J. M. Donatelli, A. AbuGhazaleh, S. G. Baer, and L. C. Johnson. 2016. Ecotypic variation in forage nutrient value of a dominant prairie grass across a precipitation gradient. Grassland Science 62: 233–242.

64.  Baer, S. G. 2016. Nutrients as determinants and endpoints in ecological restoration. Pages 333-364. In M. A. Palmer, J. Zedler, and D. Falk (editors). Foundations of Restoration Ecology, 2nd edition. Island Press: Washington D.C.

63.   Khalil, M. I., D. J. Gibson, and S. G. Baer. 2016. Population source of dominant species differentially affect community phylogenetic structure in a grassland restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology Published online doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12743


62.   Birgé, H. E., R. A Bevansa , D. G. Angelerb , C. R. Allen, S. G. Baer, and D. H. Wall. 2016. Adaptive management for soil ecosystem services. Journal of Environmental Management 183: 371-378


61. Weathers, K. C., P. M. Groffman P. M., E. Van Dolah, E. Bernhardt, N. Grimm, K. McMahon, J. Schimel, M. Paolisso, R. Maranger, S. Baer, K. Brauman, and E. Hinkley. 2016. Frontiers in ecosystem ecology from an interdisciplinary perspective: the future is boundless and bright. Ecosystems 19: 753-770. 60.


60. Wilson, L. D. J. Gibson, S. G. Baer, L. C. Johnson. 2016. Plant community response to regional sources of dominant grasses in grasslands restored across a longitudinal gradient.

Ecosphere Volume 7(4) Article e01329 59.


59. Baer, S. G., J. M. Blair, and S. L. Collins. 2016. Environmental heterogeneity has a weak effect on diversity during community assembly in tallgrass prairie. Ecological Monographs 86: 94-106.


58.  Rosenzweig, S., M. Carson, S. G. Baer, and J. M. Blair. 2016. Changes in soil properties, microbial biomass, and fluxes of C and N in soil following post-agricultural grassland restoration. Journal of Applied Soil Ecology 100:186–194.


57.  Johnson, L., J. Olsen, H. Tetreault, N. M. Bello, A. de LaCruz, A. Landau, J. Bryant, T. Morgan, M. Knapp, S. G. Baer, and B. R. Maricle. 2015. Intraspecific variation of a dominant grass and local adaptation in reciprocal garden communities along a US Great Plains’ precipitation gradient: Implications for grassland restoration with climate change. Evolutionary Applications 8:705-723.


56.  Mendola, M. M., S. G. Baer, L. C. Johnson and B. R. Maricle. 2015. The role of ecotypic variation and the environment on biomass and nitrogen in a dominant prairie grass. Ecology 96:2433–2445.


55.  Wodika, B. R. and S. G. Baer. 2015. If we build it will they colonize? A test of the field of dreams paradigm with soil macroinvertebrate communities. Applied Soil Ecology 91: 80-89.


54.  Baer, S. G., E. M. Bach, C. K. Meyer, C. DuPreez, and J. Six. 2015. Restoration of cultivated soil in the Free State (South Africa) and comparison to Nebraska (United States) provides a global perspective of belowground ecosystem recovery in response to grassland restoration. Ecosystems 18: 390-403


53.  Willand, J. E., S. G. Baer, and D. J. Gibson. 2015. Propagule abundance and richness are equivalent or higher in communities restoredwith local ecotypes relative to cultivars of dominant species Journal of Vegetation Science 26: 421-430.


52.  Gray, M., P. St. Amand, N. Bello, M. Galliart, M. Knapp, K. Garrett, T. Morgan, S. G. Baer, B. Maricle, E. Akhunov, and L. Johnson. 2014. Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands’ environmental gradient. Molecular Ecology 23(24):6011-28. doi: 10.1111/mec.12993


51.  Caudle, K. L., L. C. Johnson, S. G. Baer, and B. R. Maricle. 2014. Comparing nondestructive and destructive methods of measuring leaf chlorophyll content: tracking changes in foliar chlorophyll of five Andropogon gerardii ecotypes (Poaceae).  Photosynthetica 52:511-518.


50.  Paudel, S., S. G. Baer, and L. L. Battaglia. 2014. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) and success of Triadica sebifera invasion in coastal transition ecosystems along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Plant and Soil 378:377-349. DOI 10.1007/s11104-014-2026-8


49.  Wodika, B. R., S. G. Baer, and R. P. Klopf. 2014. Colonization and recovery of invertebrate ecosystem engineers during prairie restoration.  Restoration Ecology 22: 456-464. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12084


48.  Danny J. Gustafson, C. Major, D. Jones, J. Synovec, S. G. Baer, and D. J. Gibson. 2014. Genetic sorting of subordinate species in grassland modulated by intraspecific variation in dominant species. PlosOne March 17, 2014. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091511


47.  Klopf, R. P., S. G. Baer, and D. J. Gibson. 2014. Convergent and contingent community responses to grass source and dominance during prairie restoration across a longitudinal gradient. Environmental Management 53: 252-265.


46.  Baer, S. G., D. J. Gibson, A. M. Benscoter, L. K. Reed, R. E. Campbell, R. P. Klopf, J. E. Willand, and B. R. Wodika.  2014. No effect of seed source on multiple aspects of ecosystem functioning during ecological restoration: cultivars compared to local ecotypes of dominant grasses. Evolutionary Applications 7:323-335 doi:10.1111/eva.12124


45.  Gibson, D. J., Sendor, G., J. Donatelli, S. G. Baer, and L. Johnson.  2013.  Fitness among population sources of a dominant species (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) used in prairie restoration. Torrey Botanical Society 140(3):269-279.


44.  Olsen, J. T., K. L. Caudle, L. C. Johnson, S. G. Baer, and B. Maricle. 2013. Environmental and genetic variation in leaf anatomy among populations of Andropogon gerardii (Poaceae) along a precipitation gradient.  American Journal of Botany 100: 1-12.


43.  Willand, J. E., S. G. Baer, D. J. Gibson, and R. P. Klopf.  2013. Temporal dynamics of propagule sources for community regeneration during grassland establishment.  Plant Ecology 214: 1169-1180.


42.  Pinter, N., S. Baer, L. Chevalier, R. Kowlchuck, C. Lant, and M. Whiles.  2013.  An “IGERT” model for interdisciplinary doctoral education in water-related science and policy.  Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 150: 53-62.


41.  Considine, C.D., J.W. Groninger, C.M. Ruffner, M.D. Therrell, and S. G. Baer. 2013.  Black oak sand savanna stand structure as related to fire history. Natural Areas Journal 33: 10-20.


40.  Gibson, D.J., S. G. Baer, R. P. Klopf, L. K. Reed, B. R. Wodika, B.R., and J. E. Willand.  2013. Limited effects of dominant species population source on community composition during community assembly.  Journal of Vegetation Science 24: 429-440. F1000Prime Recommended


39.  Baer, Sara G.  2013. Restoration Ecology.  In Oxford Bibliographies in Ecology.  Edited by David Gibson.  New York: Oxford University Press.


38.  Baer, S. G., L. Heneghan, and V. Eviner.  2012.  Applying soil ecological knowledge to restore ecosystem services. Pages 377-393 Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services. Edited by Diana H. Wall, Richard D. Bardgett, Valerie Behan-Pelletier, Jeffrey E. Herrick, Hefin Jones, Karl Ritz, Johan Six, Donald R. Strong and William H. van der Putten.  Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


37.  Bach, E.M., S. G. Baer, and J. Six. 2012.  Plant and soil responses to high and low diversity restoration practices. Environmental Management 49:412-424.


36.  Gibson, D. J., A. J. Alstadt, S. G. Baer, and M. Geisler.  2012.  Effects of foundation species genotypic diversity on subordinate species richness in an assembling community.  Oikos 121: 496-507.


35.  Gibson, D.J., J. Urban, and S. G. Baer. 2011.  Mowing and fertilizer effects on seedling establishment in a successional old field.  Journal of Plant Ecology 4: 157-168.


34.   Klopf, R. P. and S. G. Baer.  2011. Root dynamics of cultivar and non-cultivar population sources of three dominant grasses during initial establishment of tallgrass prairie. Restoration Ecology 19: 112-117


33.   Lambert, A. M., S. G. Baer, and D. J. Gibson. 2011.  Intraspecific variation in ecophysiology of three dominant prairie grasses used in restoration: cultivar vs. non-cultivar population sources. Restoration Ecology 19:43-52.


32.   Bach, E. M., S. G. Baer, C. K. Meyer, and J. Six. 2010. Soil microbial and structural recovery during grassland restoration on contrasting soil texture. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42: 2182-2191.


31.   Baer, S. G., C. K. Meyer, E. M. Bach, R. P. Klopf, and J. Six. 2010. Contrasting ecosystem recovery on two soil textures: implications for carbon mitigation and grassland conservation. Ecosphere 1(1):art5. DOI: 10.1890/ES10-00004.1  FACULTY OF 1000


30.   McCain, K.N., S. G. Baer, J. M. Blair, and G. W. T. Wilson. 2010. Dominant grasses suppress local diversity in restored tallgrass prairie. Restoration Ecology 18: 40-49.


29.   Meyer, C.K., M. R. Whiles, and S. G. Baer. 2010. Plant community recovery following restoration in temporally variable riparian wetlands. Restoration Ecology 18: 52-64.


28.   Goldstein, C., K. Williard, J. E. Schoonover, J. W. Groninger, S. G. Baer, and J. M. Snyder. 2010. Soil and groundwater nitrogen response to invasion by an exotic N-fixing shrub. Journal of Environmental Quality 39: 1077-1084.


27.   Lee, J., J. W. Hopmans, D. E. Rolston, S. G. Baer, and J. Six. 2010. Determining soil carbon stock changes: Simple bulk density corrections fail (vol 134, pg 251, 2009). Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 138: 355-355.


26.   Zaczek, J., S. G. Baer, and D. Dalzotto. 2010. Fire and fertilization effects on the growth and spread of rhizome-transplanted giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea). Restoration Ecology 18: 462-468.


25.   Baer, S. G., D. Engle, J. M. H. Knops, K. A. Langeland, B. D. Maxwell, F. D. Menalled, and A. Symstad.  2009. Vulnerability of rehabilitated agricultural production systems to invasion by nontarget plant species.  Environmental Management 43:189-196.


24.   Battaglia, L. L., J. Denslow, J. Inzauskis, and S. G. Baer.  2009.  Effects of native vegetation on invasion success of Chinese tallow in a floating marsh ecosystem.  Journal of Ecology 97: 239-246.


23.   Blattel, C. R., K. W. J. Williard, S. G. Baer, J. E. Schoonover, and J. J. Zaczek.  2009.  Ground water nitrogen dynamics in Giant Cane and forest riparian buffers.  Castanea 74: 259-270.


22.   Lee, J., J. W. Hopmans, D. E. Rolston, S. G. Baer, and J. Six. 2009.  Determining soil carbon stock changes: Simple bulk density corrections fail.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 134: 251-256


21.  Zaczek J. , S. G. Baer, J. L. Hartleb, W. W. Brendecke, J. E. Schoonover, K. W. J. Williard, and J. W. Groninger.  2009.  Survival and genet growth and development of field-planted giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea) over time in southern Illinois. Castanea 74:286-299.


20.   Romano, S. P., S. G. Baer, J. J. Zaczek, and K. W. J. Williard.  2009.  Site modeling methods for detecting hydrologic alteration of flood frequency and flood duration in the floodplain below the Carlyle Dam, Lower Kaskaskia River, Illinois, USA.  River Research and Applications 25: 975-984.


19.  Heneghan, L., S. Miller, S. Baer, M. A. Callaham, J. Montgomery, C. C. Rhoades, S. Richardson, M. Pauvo-Zuckerman. 2008.  Integrating soil ecological knowledge into restoration management. Restoration Ecology 16:608-617.


18.   Baer, S. G. and J. M. Blair.  2008. Grassland establishment under varying resource availability: A test of positive and negative feedback. Ecology 89:1859-1871.


17.   Meyer, C. K., S. G. Baer, and M. R. Whiles. 2008.  Ecosystem recovery across a chronosequence of restored wetlands in the Platte River Valley. Ecosystems 11:193-208.


16.  Crum, M. L., J. J. Zaczek, J. E. Preece, and S. G. Baer.  2007.  The impact of thinning and fertilization on sap sugar concentration and sap volume of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.)  Pages 269-275 in D. S. Buckley and W. K. Clatterbuck (editors), Proceedings, 15th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. Feb 27- March 1, 2006, Knoxville, TN.  e-General Technical Report SRS-101, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station Asheville, NC. (Peer reviewed)


15.   Baer, S. G., J. M. Church, K. W. J. Williard, and J. W. Groninger. 2006. Changes in intrasystem N cycling from N2-fixing shrub encroachment in grassland: multiple positive feedbacks. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 115:174-182.


14.  Baer, S. G., S. L. Collins, J. M. Blair, A. K. Knapp and A. Fiedler.  2005.  Soil heterogeneity effects on tallgrass prairie community heterogeneity: An application of ecological theory to restoration ecology.  Restoration Ecology 13:413-424.


13.   Blattel, C. R., K. W. J. Williard, S. G. Baer and J. J. Zaczek.  2005.  Abatement of groundwater phosphate in giant cane and forest riparian buffers.  Journal of the American Water Resources Association  41:301-307.


12.  Zaczek, J. J., K. W. J. Williard, S. G. Baer, J. W. Groninger, and R. L. Sexton.  2005.  Propagation of giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea) using rhizome cuttings. Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators Society, 54:408-411. (Peer reviewed)


11.  Baer, S. G., Blair, J. M., Collins, S. L., and A. K. Knapp. 2004. Plant community responses to resource availability and heterogeneity during restoration. Oecologia  139:617-639.


10.   Baer, S. G. and J. W. Groninger. 2004.  Herbicide and tillage effects on volunteer vegetation composition and diversity during reforestation.  Restoration Ecology 12:258-267.


9.     Groninger, J. W. and S. G. Baer.  2004. Planted green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and herbaceous vegetation responses to competition control during the first three years of afforestation Forest Ecology and Management 189:161-170.


8.    Church, J.M., K.W.J. Williard, S. G. Baer, J.W. Groninger, and J.J. Zaczek. 2004. Nitrogen leaching below riparian autumn olive during the dormant season. Pages 211-216 in D.A. Yaussey, D. Hix, R.P. Long, and G.P. Goebel (editors).  Proceedings. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference, March 16-19, 2004, Wooster, OH. Gen. Tech. Report NE-316.  U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Northeastern Research Station, Newton Square, PA. (Peer reviewed)


7.     Baer, S. G., J. M. Blair, S. L. Collins, and A. K. Knapp. 2003.  Soil resources regulate productivity and diversity in newly established tallgrass prairie.  Ecology 84:724-735.


6.    Blattel, C.R., K.W.J. Williard, and S.G. Baer.  2003. Groundwater phosphate attenuation by giant cane and forest riparian buffers.  In:  J.D. Williams and D. Kolpin, eds.  Proceedings of the American Water Resources Association, 2003 Spring Specialty Conference on Agricultural Hydrology and Water Quality.  May 12-14, 2003, Kansas City, MO. (Peer reviewed)


5.    Romano, S. P., J. J. Zaczek, K. W. J. Williard, S. G. Baer, A. D. Carver, and J. C. Mangun. 2003. Riparian forest communities of the lower Kaskaskia River bottoms. Pages 169-176 in J. W. Van Sambeek, J. O. Dawson, F. Ponder, Jr., E. F. Louwenstein, and J. S. Fralish (editors),  Proceedings 13th Central Hardwood Forest Conference, April 1-3, 2002, Champaign, IL.  USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC-234, North Central Research Station, St. Paul, MN.


4.     Baer, S. G., D. J. Kitchen, J. M. Blair, and C. W. Rice. 2002. Changes in ecosystem structure and function along a chronosequence of grasslands restored through the Conservation Reserve Program. Ecological Applications 12:1688-1701.


3.     Baer, S. G., E. R. Siler, S. Eggert, and J. B. Wallace. 2001.  Colonization and production of macroinvertebrates on artificial substrates: upstream-downstream responses to a leaf litter exclusion manipulation. Freshwater Biology 46:347-365.


2.     Baer, S. G., C. W. Rice, and J. M. Blair.  2000.  Assessment of soil quality in fields with short- and long term enrollment in the CRP.  Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 55:142-146.


1.     Baer, S. G., J. M. Blair, and A. K. Knapp.  1999.  Manipulation of soil resource heterogeneity in a tallgrass prairie restoration.  Proceedings of the North American Prairie Conference 16:78-87. (Peer reviewed)